one of my consistent tropes is nothing in Europe can match the toxicity of American racial issues. that's totally grounded in history.it means the racism is constructed in a different way
that the defining issue in Europe isn't race but nationality and culture. historically religion ("Christendom") but now that's sublimated into culture.
as far as in-country vs foreign colonial violence, definitely. the latter is easy to forget, the former impossible.
it's also about conceptions of identity, which change with time. several centuries ago, there was hatred of Celtic peoples as an alien other - different culture, language, way of life. at the same time there was nothing like the modern conception of race, which begins to form around the turn of the 15th C. as Iberian explorers begin the Transatlantic slave trade with Western Africa. whereas now the Welsh, Scots, and English are all (besides native-born and immigrant POC, obv) white. the Celt as alien other ended for good after Culloden etc, having been in decline for a long time before that. whereas the conception of race that existed during chattel slavery exists in more or less the same form, despite academic attempts to frame race as social construct, so the points of tension remain the same. tho I'm also not totally clear on this, and thinking out loud.