Gravity's Rainbow works with this numerology and Kabbalah stuff largely because of how much material there is to make connections between. Its almost like these metaphysical techniques need a largely enough subject matter for their whole range of connections to play out. If the subject matter isn't extensive enough, you're just left with an arbitrary looking half-constellation.
Yeah, I think so. It's clearly designed to encourage that sort of pattern-finding; Dali's paranoiac-critical method comes to mind too.
The technique consists of the artist invoking a paranoid state (fear that the self is being manipulated, targeted or controlled by others). The result is a deconstruction of the psychological concept of identity, such that subjectivity becomes the primary aspect of the artwork.
The book frequently makes you aware that you're reading a book, but also makes you feel like it and its author are reading you as much as you're reading them, plus all the actual historical conspiracy stuff that still has its tentacles reaching into the world.